INTERNATIONAL POTATO CENTER: WORLD POTATO ATLAS

   CHINA


HISTORY AND OVERVIEW

The potato (Solanum tuberosum  L.) was introduced to Europe from its geographic origin in the Andes of South America in the late sixteenth century, probably in the 1570s (Hawkes 1992). European mariners subsequently carried potato plants to ports and territories across Asia and Africa.  However, as Europeans at that time were still ambivalent about the potato as a source of wholesome nutrition, its inclusion as cargo aboard European ships might have sometimes been as a botanical curiosity, rather than a potential food crop (Malik 1995).  In any case, the potato's introduction to China probably occurred several times via various routes during the seventeenth century.

Potato was cultivated as early as 1603 by Dutch settlers of the Penghu Islands in the Taiwan Strait, and later on Taiwan itself after the Dutch occupied the island from 1624 to 1662.  Since the Dutch initiated trade links between Taiwan and the coastal province of Fujian, the potato was probably introduced to the Chinese coast during this time (Gitomer et. al. 2000).  Potato cultivation is mentioned in a document dating to about 1700 from a mountainous area of northern Fujian, the Songxi Xianzhi  ("Songxi County Gazetteer") (Ye 1957). A likely additional route of introduction was via the northwest Loess Plateau in Shanxi and Shaanxi, two adjacent provinces in central China.  Potatoes were brought to these areas by Russian missionaries or traders from Siberia in the early seventeenth century, whence they were carried northeast to Hebei, southern Manchuria (now the coastal provinces of Liaoning and Jilin) and elsewhere in northern China (Heilongjiangsheng Keshan Nongye Kexue Yanjiusuo  1973).

Whatever the circumstances of its introduction(s), over the past few decades potato has become a crop of enormous importance to China.  Production per capita has nearly tripled since the early 1960s, as summarized in the graphs below.  Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, China is now in absolute terms the largest potato-producing nation in the world.  In terms of production by fresh weight, potato ranks behind rice, wheat, maize, and sweetpotato (FAOSTAT 2004).  However, about 80 percent of the maize and over 40 percent of the sweetpotato crops grown in China are used as animal feed (Huang et. al.  2003, p. 1), whereas most of the potato crop is directly consumed by people.

About these graphs

The potato is important to China not only as a staple food for hundreds of millions of people, but also as a cash crop.  The contribution of potato production to household incomes generally increases with altitude, correlating not only with agroecologies most favorable to potato relative to other crops, but also correlating with poverty.

Surveys undertaken in the Inner Mongolia and Shanxi provinces of Northern China (Zhibin et. al.  1998) and the Hubei Province in Southwest China (Conghua et. al.  2003) both indicate that in communities located in mountainous areas, potato production is a major source of income.  In the north, potatoes contribute more than half of the cash income to households in mountainous areas, and are most important, both for food security and cash income, to the poorest households (Zhibin et. al.  1998, p. 63).  On the lower altitude plains of both regions, potatoes are more commonly grown for household consumption.


GEOGRAPHY AND PRODUCTION ZONES

Distribution of Potato Production by Province

       To view this map, click on the thumbnail and expand the image as desrired.

       For more detailed information about data sources and interpretation, click here.



Although China's immense size and ecological diversity challenge any attempt at general description, for the sake of potato cultivation, the country can be divided into four regions, or agroecological zones.  (Regrettably, a map indicating the four regions, as presented below, is not currently available.)  The detail provided for each topic within each region does not necessarily reflect its relative importance, but rather the current (as of 2005) availability of documented information.

  • Many maps of more specific classifications — for example by soil types, agro-ecological zones, and land use — are available from the European Digital Archive of Soil Maps, China.  Most images are digitized from paper maps, of variable clarity.

NORTHERN SINGLE CROP

Northern: Cultivation Practices

Roughly 40 percent of China's potato crop is produced in this region, making up about the same proportion of China's area.  The region includes the provinces of northern Hebai, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, Ningxian Huizu, Gansu, Qinghai, and Xinjiang Uighur.  Usually one crop is planted annually in April or early May and harvested in September or early October.  Potatoes are often rotated with wheat, oats or buckwheat (CIP 1998), but are sometimes grown without a rotation in areas of poor soil condition where no other crop is sufficiently productive.  Farmers in such areas often turn the soil deeply in autumn, following harvest, in order to maintain soil texture and subsequent potato yields (Zhibin et. al.  1998, pp. 67-68).

Two methods of cultivation are commonly used, furrow planting and hole sowing, both requiring the simultaneous work of two or three people.  Furrows are plowed or holes are dug (in the case of furrows sometimes using animal traction) by one person who is followed by another placing seed potatoes and chemical fertilizer at regular intervals, followed by a third who applies animal manure.  Furrows are covered with soil when the adjacent furrow is plowed; holes are covered by the third person of a team. "Soil loosening" and "hilling" is later done around each potato plant, to protect against drought and flooding, and to promote tuber bulking.  Harvesting is usually done by two people, one to uncover potatoes either manually or with animal traction, and the other to gather potatoes into baskets or bags (ibid.).

Farmers often use fertilizer (formulations and amounts not widely reported), though less for potatoes than other crops.  Most farmers in this area indicate that they do not use pesticides, and most do not irrigate their potato crops, saying that irrigation can promote rotting.  Mechanical inputs are likewise rare, limited to larger and more commercial operations and more typical on flatter expanses of land.  Tractors would not be feasible on the steeply sloped small plots where potatoes are often grown (ibid.).

Northern: Varieties and Seed Systems

Zhibin et. al.  (1998, p. 67) have reported that in their research in four counties across Northern China, ten different potato varieties were found, some sufficiently longstanding to be considered "traditional" and some more recently released from research institutes.  Farmers welcome new varieties, subject to smaller scale trials before extensive adoption.   Positive traits include: higher production, larger size tubers, smooth skin, and short duration.  However, farmers consider the overall suite of characteristics, not selecting for just one particular trait.

Farmers do not buy seed potatoes every year, but usually select seed from the remaining stock of their own previous harvest.  Potatoes are selected for size and condition, generally using mid-sized potatoes for seed because they do not demand as high a market price as larger potatoes, but are thought to produce higher-yielding plants than small tubers (Zhibin et. al. 1998, p. 65).

Soon after selection from storage, seed potatoes are cut into pieces with one bud each.  Some farmers reported that extension agents had recommended that they leave cut tubers exposed to sunlight for a week prior to planting in order to promote more rapid sprouting and growth, but they had not adopted the practice for lack of time and labor.  Another practice recommended by extension agents, mixing seed tubers with straw ash to minimize microbial infection, was not pursued since farmers did not perceive any actual benefit (ibid.,  p. 66).

Farmers have also reported that they need to exchange tuber seed every two to three years.  It is widely believed that the greater the distance to a source of "new" seed, the greater the benefit.  They will therefore look outside their communities, but rarely to commercial markets.  Often new seed is acquired via exchanges, often involving no cash, with friends or relatives living some distance away (ibid.).

Northern: Storage

Farmers generally store potatoes in some type of underground facility, including "well cellars" dug in home yards, or cave cellars in hilly areas, sometimes at sites selected and excavated in common by the farmers of a village.  Zhibin et. al.  report (1998) that although the design and construction of storage facilities are quite variable depending on local conditions, farmers are well aware of the proper moisture and temperature regimes needed to maintain potatoes in storage for several months (ibid.,  p. 69).

CENTRAL PLAINS (DOUBLE CROP)

The region is roughly defined by the provinces of Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangsu, Shandong, southern Hunan, Shaanxi, Shanxi, and southern Hebai.  Potato cultivation is feasible in the spring and fall, which can provide combined growing seasons of 180 to 280 days.  The main climatic constraint to potato cultivation is the long hot summer, when temperatures are too high for tuberization.  Potatoes for consumption are sown between late February and early March and harvested between late May and mid-June.  Force-sprouted tubers are replanted in August and harvested in November for use as seed stock for the spring crop.  However, due to the region's great latitudinal extent (covering 15 degrees) and its complex topography, planting times are locally variable.  Spring potatoes are sown in the north on the Liaodong Peninsula as late as early April and in the south, for example the Hangzhou Strait, as soon as early February (ibid.).

SOUTHERN DOUBLE CROP

This region, by far the smallest in area, consists of Guangxi, Guangdong, and Fujian provinces.  With a hotter climate, growing seasons are restricted to seasonally cooler weather.  The fall crop is usually sown in October with harvests in late December or early January.  Winter potato is usually sown in mid-January and harvested in early to mid April.  Intercropping is possible with a flexible cropping calendar since potato has a short growing cycle, and the region generally does not face the hazard of frost damage.

SOUTHWESTERN MIXED SINGLE AND MULTI-CROP

Southwestern: Distribution of Potato Cultivation

This region (roughly a quarter of China's total land area) includes the provinces of Sichuan, Yunan, Guizhou, western Hubai, and western Hunan.  Tibet, although part of this region, is not considered here since potatoes are not a locally important crop.  The emphasis on Sichuan Province reflects more readily available information, especially from the thesis (1997) of He Wei.

The Southwest accounts for a large share of China's annual potato crop, but production is also less stable over time.  In 1995, this region accounted for over 47 percent of China's total crop, but with declining yields in 1996, relative production fell to less than 38 percent (FAOSTAT, cited in Conghua et. al. 1999, p. 101).  Cultivation systems vary widely with differences in elevation, topography, climate, and soils.  Farmers are limited to one potato crop annually in higher altitude mountainous areas, but can grow three crops in some lower altitude valleys.

In the province of Sichuan, potatoes are grown in mountainous areas ranging from 400 to 3,000 masl, with the greatest concentration around 1,000 masl in the eastern basin of the province.  Yields here are quite variable, but on average much lower than in more temperate regions (although crops grown at higher altitudes can approach temperate yields).  The eastern area of Sichuan, much more densely populated than the west, is a center of potato cultivation in part since lower temperatures and lack of irrigation favor potato relative to other crops (Wei 1997, p. 1).
 
Southwestern: Cultivation Practices

The calendar for the Sichuan Province varies generally with altitude (ibid.):

  • Higher altitudes (above 1,200 masl): Only one crop is grown in the spring, planted between January and April and harvested between May and September, higher altitudes correlating with later planting and harvesting dates;
  • Intermediate altitudes (750 - 1,200 masl): In addition to the spring crop, an autumn crop can be planted between late August and mid-September and harvested between late November and early December;
  • Lower altitudes (below 750 masl): Since high temperatures are a limiting factor for potatoes, planting for the spring crop is usually earlier, sometimes in December, in order to avoid high temperatures in May which can impede or even stop further tuber growth.  A third winter crop can be grown from November to February to supply urban markets when prices are higher, but yields are very low.

The most appropriate planting time for a given area is also dependent on the variety being grown, especially on whether it tuberizes early or late.  Varieties which tuberize early are better adapted to lower altitudes, whereas those which tuberize later are better suited to higher altitudes, where they can take advantage of warmer conditions to develop foliage, followed by tuberization in cooler temperatures (Wei 1997, p. 32).

Since Sichuan Province, and the southwestern region in general, is more physically complex with a greater range of temperature regimes than other regions, seed is more variable in terms of site of origin (especially altitude) and physiological age.  Wei (1997, pp. 35-54) reports that in experimental treatments, physiologically older seed tubers provided higher yields at lower altitudes, but younger seed tubers were more productive at higher altitudes.  At lower altitudes, tuberization should be nearly complete before the onset of high temperatures, while at higher altitudes, relatively young tuber seed allows longer crop growth, ultimately associated with higher yield.  For autumn crops, coming out of rather than heading into the heat, relatively older seed sources were advantageous at both low and high altitudes.

Planting seed tubers cut into pieces is a fairly standard practice, especially at higher altitudes where the introduction of pathogens might be less serious.  Cutting seed tubers helps to break dormancy imposed by apical buds, probably aided by wound-induced gibberellins (growth regulating compounds) and an increase in oxygen available to the cut surface.  At mid altitudes (around 1,200 masl), farmers typically cut tubers into smaller pieces (more per tuber) than at higher altitudes (about 1,500 masl) in order to enhance the effect of producing more stems.  However, any potential yield gain is probably negated by increased viral infection introduced via cutting instruments.  Sterilization of equipment and other measures to prevent infection are not yet readily available to farmers in this area (Wei 1997, pp. 79-80).

The relatively short growing cycle of potato and the lack of frost throughout most of the region permit intercropping, most often with maize.  Conghua et. al. (1999, p. 100) estimate that 80 percent of potato cultivation in this region is intercropped with maize.  Wei (1997, pp. 1-2, 6) estimates that about 70 percent of the total potato growing area of the spring (main) season of Sichuan Province is intercropped with maize, typically with maize planted about 60 days later than potato. However, Wei reports (1997, p. 7) that at higher altitudes where only one potato crop is possible, monocropping is more common, estimated at 70 percent of the total crop.

Southwestern: Occurrence and Control of Potato Diseases and Pests

The warmer climate and complex topography which allow for multiple cropping also present more biological constraints, both diseases and insect pests.
 
Late Blight (LB, Phytophthora infestans ).  Wei reports (1997, p. 106) that a severe LB epidemic occurred in 1990, probably induced by heavy rain and low temperatures in March and April.  LB is a greater hazard in cool and humid conditions to spring crops, in this region by far the most important cropping season. (Please see the links below, under "Production Systems and Constraints," for more information about LB.)
 
Bacterial Diseases.  First observed in the Sichuan area in the late 1970s, bacterial wilt had become a severe epidemic by the early 1980s, but decreased in the following decade (as of 1997).  One possibility for the decreased severity of wilt is that farmers used to plant a variety called Epoka at low altitudes (around 500 masl) in the spring, then transfer tubers, and possibly the infection, to higher altitudes (around 1,200 masl) as seed for the autumn crop.  This practice has been discontinued due to the introduction of a new cultivar, CY56, which can be grown at the higher altitude in both seasons (Wei 1997, p. 107).  Intercropping with maize has also been found to reduce the incidence of bacterial wilt, although crop rotations are limited by the local importance of potato across the southwest.

The bacterial disease Erwinia  spp. was identified from tuber samples collected in 1994 in the Sichuan area (Wei 1997, p. 109), but little additional information is yet available.
 
Viral Diseases. Wei reports (1997, p. 106) that viral infections are common in the Sichuan area, especially mosaic and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV).  The presence of  Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid (PSTV) was also noted in the southern highlands area, especially in the open pollinated true seed progenies of the cultivar "Kuannae" that was introduced via Inner Mongolia.  Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assays (ELISA) analysis has revealed PV(Potato Virus) S, Y, X, M and PLRV.  In the cases of PVS, PVM, and PVY, the apparent health of infected plants did not correlate with the degree of viral infection.

Aphid populations, largely responsible for the transmission of viral infection, seem to peak in early May in the mountains (around 1,500 masl) affecting the spring crop.  But in general, viral infection levels in this area were likewise not reported to be closely related to tuber yields under field conditions, suggesting that other constraints are of greater significance.

The "28-spot beetle" (Epilachna niponica  Lewis) defoliates potato plants and has been reported as occasionally severe in the Sichuan area, especially in dry conditions.  It is possibly the most important defoliating insect pest of China, but can be controlled with chemical insecticides (not specified) (Wei 1997 p. 109).

Parasitic nematodes, including root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne  spp.) are found widely in the Sichuan area, most often in warm, moist, and light-textured soils, where some species can cause severe local damage.  Meloidogyne  spp. are among the nematodes with a wide host range, thus more difficult to control via agronomic (i.e. non-chemical) measures such as crop rotations, intercropping, and biological controls (Wei 1997, p. 111).

Southwestern: Varieties and Seed Systems 

At higher altitudes (1,500 masl and above), seed is generally retained or brought from areas of mid-altitude if more is needed of a suitable variety (e.g. later tuberizing) and/or of a more appropriate (younger) physiological state.   Most seed tubers are produced at mid-latitude farms (around 1,000 masl), mostly for farmers at lower altitudes.  At very low altitudes (around 500 masl), where high temperatures do not allow seed to remain viable in storage for long, it must be obtained from higher altitudes (Wei 1997, pp. 6-7).

The import of seed from abroad into Sichuan is rare, as local transportation is expensive and challenging.  Rapid multiplication of cuttings and true potato seed (some from a production program initiated by CIP in 1996) have proven to be important alternative sources of propagules, though difficulties with distribution systems continue to leave many farmers dependent on local seed (ibid.).


PRODUCTION SYSTEMS AND CONSTRAINTS

Please refer to the "Geography and Production Zones" section for regional treatment of this topic.

  • For more information about Late Blight, please refer to the Global Initiative on Late Blight (GILB) China Profile.

For more information about disease and pest constraints noted here (some information more technically specialized, but not necessarily specific to China), please refer to the relevant sections of:


VARIETIES AND SEED SYSTEMS

This topic is also treated regionally in the "Geography and Production Zones" section, with more general nationwide description below. 

Varieties

Promising potato varieties are being developed and introduced to China, many with the partnership of CIP since 1978, when the variety CIP-24 was introduced through the Wumeng Agricultural Research Institute in Inner Mongolia.  CIP-24, selected in part for its drought tolerance, was being cultivated on over 150,000 hectares as of 1998.  CIP continues its exchange of germplasm with China via multilocational trials across Northern China at the Wumeng and Yanging research stations.  Varietal selection has focused on resistance to late blight and bacterial wilt, as well as drought tolerance and early maturity (CIP 1998).

Another, more recently introduced variety has been locally named "Cooperation," referring to the work undertaken jointly between CIP and several research facilities in the Yunan area of southern China.  There, the variety is best suited as a higher altitude main (spring) crop, but it is being evaluated for potential cultivation in other regions.

Recently released varieties, as of 1998, are summarized below (Walker 2003).


Adoption of Potato Cultivars by Type in China (as of 1998)

                   Variety

Year Released

      Variety Source

Area (Hectares)

Percent Area

Kexin1

1984

NARS Bred

333,563

9.5

Zhihuabai

.

NARS Bred

285,727

8.2

Weiyu-3

1994

NARS Bred

122,158

3.5

Jinshu 7

1987

NARS Bred

95,333

2.7

Favorita

1980

Developed country variety

79,265

2.3

Chuanyu 56

1987

NARS Bred

75,033

2.1

175


NARS Bred

66,667

1.9

Dongbeibai


NARS Bred

66,667

1.9

Weishu 1


NARS Bred

66,667

1.9

Dongnong 303

1978

NARS Bred

62,483

1.8

Bashu 10

1985

NARS Bred

60,000

1.7

Gaoyuan 4


NARS Bred

58,667

1.7

Xiaobaihua


NARS Bred

56,667

1.6

Kexin 13


NARS Bred

53,333

1.5

Kexin 3

1986

NARS Bred

45,080

1.3

Kexin 4

1986

NARS Bred

44,899

1.3

ER potato 1

1995

CIP Progeny

42,167

1.2

CIP-24

1982

CIP Distributed

24,944

0.7

CFK 69.1, Pota, CIP-22, Dalat, 004 

1990

CIP Distributed

20,000

0.6

Chuanyu 4

1993

CIP Progeny

20,000

0.6

Chuanyu 39

1995

CIP Progeny

6,667

0.2

Cooperation 88

1995

CIP Cross

3,333

0.1

Others



865,058

24.7

Total Area



3,499,822


Total Area of CIP-Derived Varieties



117,110

3.35

"Year released" refers to release in China.


Notes regarding Variety Source (personal communication Keith Fuglie):

  • NARS Bred: A clone selected from a cross of parent varieties not from CIP, developed by the national agricultural research system (NARS) of China;
  • CIP Progeny: A parent variety provided by CIP in a cross undertaken by NARS in China (the other parent from China or elsewhere), resulting in a clone subsequently selected as a new variety;
  • CIP Cross: Developed by CIP and sent either as true seed or in vitro plantlets to China for evaluation, subsequently selected as a new variety;
  • CIP Distributed: Selected by CIP from another country and subsequently introduced to China, for example CIP-24, originally bred in Argentina;
  • Developed Country Variety: Initially released in Europe or North America, then introduced to China without any modification (other examples including Mira and Russet Burbank).  

Seed Systems

Tissue culture and rapid propagation techniques, utilized to produce disease-free planting materials, have been underway in China at least since 1978, when virally "clean" plantlets were introduced in the Yunan area.  However, due to a long cycle of propagation and initially poor quality control, supplies were not sufficient, and stocks were reinfected with viral and other diseases.  More recently, production of microtubers and minitubers has been developed at Huazhong University in Wuhan.  Minitubers are being produced from microtubers and plantlets in screen houses in an effort to increase the availability of healthy seed (Conghua et. al.  2003, p. 50).

Since each province maintains its own procedures for the production and distribution of minitubers, access to disease-free planting materials (and new varieties) is locally variable (Honess and Tai 1997, p. 435).  Access to high quality seed remains a challenge to many farmers who live in isolated communities where roads and other physical infrastructure have not yet been developed.  Regulatory efforts pertaining to seed production, such as quarantine procedures, have been issued since the early 1980s.  However, lacking a formal registration procedure for seed production, virtually anyone can market seed potatoes, including minitubers of dubious quality (Dongyu et. al. 2004).  Nonetheless, with anticipated improvements of both quality and quantity, seed production could potentially develop into an export market serving other countries of southern Asia, where seed production costs are higher (ibid.).

China is also turning to foreign commercial sources for seed.  Penn Biotech, a Canadian firm specializing in agrotechnology, has reported that it's Chinese subsidiary has received a request to supply over 1.3 million pounds of seed potatoes through 2005.


CONSUMPTION, STORAGE, AND MARKETING

Consumption

To the extent that potatoes are neither imported nor exported in significant quantities (not necessarily true for very long in China), consumption can be well estimated by per capita production.  China's total potato production of over 75 million tons, consumed by over one billion three hundred million people, averages out to slightly more than 57 kilograms annual per capita consumption.  This is high by world standards, second only to Nepal among all nations in Asia, but within this national average lies a strong range of local variation.

Storage

Please refer to the "Geography and Production Zones" section for regional treatment of this topic.

Marketing

Communal agricultural production and marketing were being phased out by the mid-1980s in China, so that farm households were selling a growing share of their produce in free markets, both rural and urban.  The liberalized market environment fostered a new institution of sorts, the "specialized household" operating as an entrepreneurial unit, providing equipment or services such as irrigation and pest control (US LOC: Agriculture).

As the urban population of China grows proportionately (from about 30 percent of the total population in 1994 to about 39 percent in 2003) and becomes very large in absolute terms (from roughly 375 million to 510 million in that same period), and as more people have more disposable income, fast food is greatly in demand.  That, of course, includes potatoes, whether as french fries or mashed, and even snack chips.  The import of frozen potato slices (for french fries) began in 1997 and has grown very rapidly, supplied mostly from the United States, with a small market share filled by the Netherlands and in recent years, an expanding share by New Zealand and Canada.

  • For more info, please see, from the US Foreign Agriculture Service, Market Trends.

Potato flakes, used to prepare mashed potatoes, are likewise mostly imported, although two factories located in Inner Mongolia produce some product, still in modest supply relative to rapidly growing demand.

However, Chinese farmers are responding to the market. Potatoes used for french fries by McDonald's restaurants in Northern China are grown by farmers north of Beijing working on 2,000 hectares of land and producing approximately 30,000 tons of potatoes, which are processed by an Idaho-based firm, Simplot (People's Daily).  Such production is still miniscule relative to China's total production, but it is growing.  Likewise, the development of potato chip factories is expected to encourage the expansion of varieties suitable for this purpose (Dongyu et. al. 2004).  From the perspective of North American and European agribusiness firms, China has potential to become either a market or a competitor, or some of both.


RESEARCH FACILITIES AND CONTACTS

Agricultural research facilities and universities relevant to potato cultivation in China include:

The International Potato Center (CIP) established a regional office in China in 1985.  But even prior to that date, CIP had been involved in the development of new varieties, as well as research pertaining to disease and pest control, for example the use of viral detection techniques such as Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assays (ELISA) (Khurana and Garg 2003, p. 174).

  • The contact for CIP's office in China is available via CIP ESEAP  (East, Southeast Asia and the Pacific).


CONTRIBUTORS

Kelly Theisen is the principal contributor to the revised (2006) edition of the China potato chapter, some sections based on the previous edition by:

  • Charles Gitomer (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences);
  • Yi Wang (CIP);
  • W. Zhengui Yan (Agricultural Research Institute of Inner Mongolia);
  • He Wei (Crops Institute of Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences);
  • Jun Wang (Yunan Normal University);
  • Liyuan He (Institute of Plant Protection);
  • Luisa Huaccho (CIP);
  • Robert Hijmans (CIP)

Keith Fuglie provided information and advice via personal communication.


REFERENCES

CIP 1998. International Potato Center Annual Report 1998: Diversifying Diets in China.

Conghua, Xie; Dindo Campilan; Yi Wang. 1999. Potato Integrated Disease Management in China.  In: Learning to Manage Livelihoods: New Perspectives in Rootcrop R&D. UPWARD. Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.

Conghua, Xie; Dindo M. Campilan; Wu Chengjin; Nie Bihua. 2003. Pilot Evaluation of Potato Integrated Disease Management in the Mountain Agroecosystems of Hubei, China.  In: From Cultivars to Consumers: Participatory Research with Various User Groups.  International Potato Center (CIP) and Users' Perspectives with Agricultural Research and Development (UPWARD).  CIP-UPWARD. Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.

Dongyu, Qu; Xie Kaiyun; Jin Liping; Bian Chungsong; Duan Shaoguang. 2004. Situation and Trends of Potato Industry in China.  World Potato Congress.

Gitomer, Charles S. 1996. Potato and Sweetpotato in China: Systems, Constraints, and Potential. International Potato Center (CIP), Lima, Peru.

Gitomer, Charles; Yi Wang; W. Zhengui Yan; Wei He; Jun Wang; Liyuan He; L. Huaccho; R.J. Hijmans. 2000. Potato Production in the P.R. of China. Obst-, Gemüse-und Kartoffelverabeitung (Vegetable and Potato Production, Germany) 85 5(6): 212-216.

Hawkes, J. G. 1992. History of the Potato. In: P.M. Harris, Ed.  The Potato Crop: The Scientific Basis for Improvement. Second Edition. Chapman and Hall. London. pp. 1-12.

Heilongjiangsheng Keshan Nongye Kexue Yanjiusuo (Heilongjiang Province Keshan Institute of Agricultural Science). 1973. Malingshu Zaipei (Potato Cultivation).  Heilongjiang Renmin Chubanshe (Heilongjiang People's Press). Harbin.

Honess, B.L. and G.C.C. Tai. 1997. The Developing Potato Seed Industry and Expansion of Local and Introduced Potato Varieties in Northern China.  American Potato Journal (USA). 74(6):435-436.

Huang, Jikun; Jun Song; Fanbian Qiao; Keith Fuglie. 2003. Sweetpotato in China: Economic Aspects and Utilization in Pig Production.  International Potato Center (CIP). Bogor, Indonesia.

Khurana, S.M. Paul and I.D. Garg. 2003. Potatoes in Warm Climates.  Chapter 7 of: Virus and Virus-Like Diseases of Major Crops in Developing Countries. Edited by Gad Loebenstein and George Thottappilly. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Malik, Nasrullah. 1995.  Potatoes in Pakistan: A Handbook.  Pak-Swiss Potato Development Project.  Pakistan Agricultural Research Council.  Islamabad, Pakistan.

Song, B.; J. Wang; R. Wang; H. Gao. 1995.  Present Situation and Future Trend of Potato Production and Utilization in China.  In: Liu, Q. and T. Kokubu (eds.). Proceedings of the First Chinese-Japanese Symposium on Sweetpotato and Potato. August 30 - September 2, 1995. Beijing Agricultural University Press, pp. 226-238.

US LOC (United States Library of Congress) Country Studies: China (Agriculture).

Walker, Thomas S. 2003.  CIP internal database prepared as part of a study on the impact of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) on germplasm improvement, organized by the CGIAR Standing Panel on Impact Assessment. (See Evenson, R.E. and D. Gollin, Editors. 2003. Crop Variety Improvement and its Effect on Productivity: The Impact of International Agricultural Research. CABI Publishing. Wallingfor, Oxon, UK.)

Wei, He. 1997. Agronomic and Ecological Studies on the Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Southwest China.  Seed and Crop Management.  Ph.D thesis Wageningen Agricultural University.

Ye, Caolin. 1987.  The Past and Progress of Potato Research in China (Chinese) Potato Journal 1:43-45.

Ye, Changfeng. 1957.  Malingshu (Potato). Kexue Chubanshe (Science Press). Beijing.

Zhibin, Lin; Li Xiaoyun; Zhou Shengkun. 1998.  In: Sustainable Livelihood for Rural Households: Contributions from Rootcrop Agriculture. UPWARD. Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.